Story Map

{"width":"100%","height":"40em","storymap":{"language":"EN","call_to_action":true,"call_to_action_text":"Onward","map_type":"osm:standard","slides":[{"type":"overview","text":{"headline":"Story Map","text":"<p><strong>C\u00e9sar-Fran\u00e7ois de Saussure<\/strong> (1705 \u2013 1783) was a Swiss travel writer. After the death of his father in 1724, he spent eleven years travelling around Europe. De Saussure arrived in London in May 1725 by way of Germany and Holland, and lived in the English metropolis until October 1729. During his stay in London, he witnessed the funeral of <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/George_I_of_Great_Britain\">King George I<\/a><strong> <\/strong>and the crowning ceremony of his estranged son who became <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/George_II_of_Great_Britain\">King George II<\/a>.<\/p>\n\n<p><span>From London, De Saussure traveled to Constantinople, Turkey, where he served as the first secretary to the British ambassador <a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/George_Hay,_8th_Earl_of_Kinnoull\">Lord Kinnoull<\/a>. In 1733 he left Lord Kinnoull\u2019s service for that of <\/span><a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/R%C3%A1k%C3%B3czi_Museum,_Tekirda%C4%9F\">Ferenc II R\u00e1k\u00f3czi<\/a>, a wealthy Hungarian noble who, after the suppression of his anti-Hapsburg uprising, settled in exile with his suite in Rodosto, Turkey. After R\u00e1k\u00f3czi's death in 1735, De Saussure returned to Switzerland.<\/p>\n\n<p>Being back home in Lausanne, De Saussure married and edited a series of letters that conveyed his travel experiences. These were not published for over a century, but circulated among a close circle of friends and acquaintances, one of whom was Voltaire. In 1738, De Saussure left Switzerland once more for Paris and London, where he lived until 1740.<\/p>\n\n<p>De Saussure was a descendant of French protestant <a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Huguenots\">Huguenots<\/a> who had to leave the country during the persecution under <a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Louis_XIV_of_France\">Louis XIV<\/a> and found refuge in Switzerland. He was born in 1705 in Lausanne as the eldest son of a minister of the Reform Church, Fran\u00e7ois-Louis de Saussure, and his wife, Jeanne-Emilie.<\/p>\n\n<p><br \/>\n<strong>Sources:<\/strong><br \/>\n<span>C\u00e9sar de Saussure. <em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II<\/em>, translated and edited by Madame van Muyden. London: J. Murray, 1902.<\/span><br \/>\n<a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/C%C3%A9sar-Fran%C3%A7ois_de_Saussure\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Cesar%20de%20Saussure_1.gif","caption":"<p>C\u00e9sar-Fran\u00e7ois de Saussure (1705 \u2013 1783) - a portrait by an unknown author.<\/p>","credit":"<p>Media Credit: Author's Archive<\/p>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/484\" hreflang=\"en\">Liberty of Westminster<\/a>","text":"<em>by Rebecca Caron<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The city of London was enclosed by stone walls and gates erected during the middle ages. However, because so many houses were built during that time, London was joined to Westminster. It was joined to Westminster because many of the houses were built on the western side of London, outside the city walls. London was divided by three parts, the first part was called the City. The City was surrounded by the stone walls mentioned above, and the people who resided there were mostly merchants. The second part of London was the Liberty of Westminster. Here is where the courts are, and the people who lived there were noblemen. It was the wealthy part of the city, therefore the noblemen could afford to live there. The Liberty of Westminster is about a mile away from Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster, making its name appropriate given its placement.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, Cesar.\u00a0<em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II. <\/em>Ed. and trans. by Madame Van Muyden, London: J Murray, 1902<em>.<\/em><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.505768476282","lon":"-0.13070499122631"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Boundaries3.jpg","caption":"<p>The purple shown on the map displays where Westminster was in 18th century\u00a0England.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.google.com\/search?q=westminster+england+1700s&amp;sxsrf=ALeKk038X4_7UWkgZWQOKTqZvwPsC_3pZw:1587957078269&amp;source=lnms&amp;tbm=isch&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=2ahUKEwish8aM0YfpAhVClnIEHXGjDEMQ_AUoAXoECA0QAw&amp;biw=1265&amp;bih=823&amp;safe=active&amp;ssui=on#imgrc=7q2QDAiGAj51GM\">Westminster.<\/a>\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/457\" hreflang=\"en\">London Squares<\/a>","text":"<em>by Rebecca Caron<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The London Squares are many fine spaces that are in the shape of squares. The centers of these squares usually\u00a0 are shut in by railings of painted wood, and contain gardens with flowers, trees and paths. Examples of these gardens are Soho, Leicester Fields, the Red Lion and Golden Square.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>St. James square is set up differently than the squares mentioned above. It is unique because it is surrounded by houses that belong to noblemen. Noblemen in old London are those who were rich and had lots of money or property. Dukes, baronets, barons and knights were all considered noblemen during this era.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Many of the squares in London are surrounded by 2 sides of arcades. Arcades are like a little overhang from the buildings above. The buildings cover the sidewalk below it, so that citizens walking can be sheltered. This is convenient when there is bad weather.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Many of the squares that were built were not originally made to be communal gardens. They were intended to be gardens for those who lived in the houses around them; almost like a fancy front yard. However, as time passed, they spread all over the city and became public areas for people to walk, picnic and spend time in.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, Cesar.\u00a0<em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II. <\/em>Ed. and trans. by Madame Van Muyden, London: J Murray, 1902<em>.<\/em><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.507173201365","lon":"-0.13535499572754"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Sutton_Nicholls%27s_view_of_St._James%27s_Square%2C_c._1722_0.jpg","caption":"<p>This photo represents St. Jame's Square in 1772 located in the city of Westminster.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> This photo is taken from<a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Squares_in_London\"> Wikipedia<\/a>.\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/515\" hreflang=\"en\">St. James&#039;s Palace<\/a>","text":"<em>by Carly Baker<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>St. James Palace is located in the Liberty of Westminster on St. James Park. It was built in the 1530s during the reign of Henry VIII, in the Tudor Style, on the\u00a0site of what once was a Leper hospital.<sup> <\/sup>(Burchard, 2011). Henry VIII commissioned this property to be built as somewhat as a secondary\/vacation home as a means to escape court life for himself and his then wife Anne Boleyn. The initials \u201cHA\u201d for \u201cHenry and Anne\u201d are carved in several locations around the palace and its surrounding structures. (BBC, 2014)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>This palace was not intended\u00a0to be the prime residence for the monarchs, rather it was used a replacement for Whitehall which was largely destroyed in a fire in 1698. In his letters, De Saussure makes note of its seeming ill-suitedness for a grand monarch \u201cThe Palace does not give you the impression from outside of being the residence of a great king, but it is a large and roomy building.\u201d<sup> <\/sup>(De Saussure, 1725) De Saussure\u2019s sentiment is consistent with the general attitudes of the public on the residence, as author Wolf Burchard writes, \u201cSt. James was much criticized for being an inappropriate residence for the kings of Great Britain.\u201d (Burchard, 2011)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Upon entering the first court of St. James\u2019s, Saussure is greeted by a gargantuan Whale Carcass which fastened to the wall - This carcass is befitting to the preceding Scientific Revolution, which promoted the explorations of anatomy and the natural sciences (Encyclop\u00e6dia Britannica, 2019). Further continuing one will reach the grand staircase above which is the Yeoman\u2019s (Royal Guard\u2019s) room. \u201cThis room is filled with guns, pistols, swords, and halberds beautifully arranged in perfect order\u201d (De Saussure, 1725).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>From the Yeoman\u2019s room one will find that of the \u201cGentlemen Pensioner\u2019s\u201d, or the Presence Room. At this location, important visitors and guests wait for the King to open his apartments for reception. This room is furnished beautifully and its walls are decorated by tapestries. The Kings apartments are one room over. The King\u2019s bedchamber is elaborately decorated with velvet and gold, the bed rests on an alcove and sectioned off from the room via \u201cbalustrades of gilded wood\u201d (De Saussure, 1725).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Adjacent to his ante-chamber is the Drawing room in which the king \u201cgives audiences and receives ambassadors\u201d these rooms overlook the park gardens and are suitably decorated with velvet upholsteries, grand paintings and tapestries, and chandeliers and d\u00e9cor made from precious metals such as silver and gold (De Saussure, 1725)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Inside the palace enclosure are two chapels \u2013 the first being the Chapel Royal in which Saussure regards as \u201cin no manner remarkable\u201d (De Saussure, 1725). In this chapel, the king attends divine service every Sunday and Friday. The second Chapel is much larger and finer than the former, and was built by Queen Catherine, wife of Charles II for Roman Catholic services, though later this becomes the location of the French and Dutch Protestant services (De Saussure, 1725).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1179\/cou.2011.16.2.003\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>WOLF BURCHARD St James\u2019s Palace: George II\u2019s and Queen Caroline\u2019s Principal London Residence, <em>The Court Historian <\/em>16:2 (2011), 177-203, Accessed January 22, 2020.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"www.bbc.co.uk\/programmes\/articles\/51L7CxtQk4xXWGZjd9fY4rN\/amazing-facts-about-st-jamess-palace.\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>\u00a0BBC \u201c500 Words - Amazing Facts about St James's Palace<em>.\u201d\u00a0BBC Radio 2<\/em>, 2014, Accessed January 23, 2020<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><a href=\"https:\/\/sakai.stlawu.edu\/access\/content\/group\/FRPG-2087-01-SP20\/Assigned%20Readings\/De%20Saussure%2C%20Cesar%201902%20A%20Foreign%20View%20of%20England.pdf\"><span lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\"><span><span><span>C\u00e9sar de Saussure.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span><span><span><a href=\"https:\/\/sakai.stlawu.edu\/access\/content\/group\/FRPG-2087-01-SP20\/Assigned%20Readings\/De%20Saussure%2C%20Cesar%201902%20A%20Foreign%20View%20of%20England.pdf\"><em><span><span>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II<\/span><\/span><\/em><span><span>. Trans. by Madame van Muyden London: J. Murray, 1902.<\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.british-history.ac.uk\/old-new-london\/vol4\/pp100-122.\">Edward Walford. \"St James's Palace,\" in\u00a0<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><a href=\"http:\/\/www.british-history.ac.uk\/old-new-london\/vol4\/pp100-122.\"><em><span><span><span>Old and New London: Volume 4<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><span><span><span><span>, (London: Cassell, Petter &amp; Galpin, 1878), 100-122.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><em><span><span><span>British History Online<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><\/a><span><span><span><span><a href=\"http:\/\/www.british-history.ac.uk\/old-new-london\/vol4\/pp100-122.\">, accessed January 23, 2020,\u00a0<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/science\/Scientific-Revolution\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Brush, S. G., Osler, M. J., &amp; Spencer, J. B. (2019, November 26). Scientific Revolution. Retrieved April 2020, from\u00a0https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/science\/Scientific-Revolution<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.5045855","lon":"-0.1378269"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-05\/Courtyard%20of%20St%20James%27s%20Palace%201875%20%20from%20Old%20and%20New%20London%20vol%204.jpg","caption":"<p>Courtyard of St James's Palace in 1875\u00a0<br \/>\nfrom<em>\u00a0Old and New London\u00a0<\/em>by E.\u00a0Walford<em>\u00a0<\/em>(1878)<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"\/\/www.british-history.ac.uk\/old-new-london\/vol4\/pp100-122\">British History Online<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/450\" hreflang=\"en\">Pall Mall<\/a>","text":"<em>by Olivia Colarusso<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Pall mall was a popular ball game played in England during the 17th century. Similar to modern croquet, pall mall was first introduced by James I who often enjoyed the game with his two sons Henry and Charles along with other English aristocrats.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>In Cesar De Saussure\u2019s account of London he briefly refers to the game of Pall Mall. \u201cAlong one side of [St. James\u2019s Palace is a magnificent place for the game of pall-mall, which extends the entire length of [St. James\u2019s Park],\u201d said De Saussure (p. 47-48). The\u00a0pall mall court in De Saussure's reports\u00a0was built following the restoration of King Charles II. De Saussure also goes on to describe that the street along the pall mall court was \u201cbordered on either side by a long avenue of trees\u201d and that \u201cevery spring it is bestrewn with tiny sea-shells, which are then crushed by means of a heavy roller\u201d (p. 48). De Saussure's short description of pall mall underscores its aesthetic and importance to early English society.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Pall Mall is now recognized as a street in the St. James area that extends between St. James Street and Trafalgar Square, near the original pall mall court De Saussure recorded. Pall Mall stretches 0.4 miles long as part of the A4 which is a major road running through Central London. In the 18th century, this street was famous for high class shopping and later gentlemen\u2019s clubs in the 19th century. Some clubs can still be found on Pall Mall in the 21st century (Wikipedia).\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>As part of its history, Pall Mall was also among the first streets in London to be gas-lit in celebration of King George III\u2019s birthday. The War Office was also located on Pall Mall from 1855-1906. Furthermore, it was also once the fine art capital of London, hosting auctions for The Royal Academy, The National Gallery, and Christie\u2019s (Wikipedia).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Pall_Mall,_London\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, Ce\u0301sar. <em>A Foreign View Of England In The Reigns Of George I And George II<\/em>. Ed. &amp; trans. by Madame Van Muyden, London: J. Murray, 1902.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.503757792086","lon":"-0.13604930704524"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/A_game_of_Pell-Mell_2.jpg","caption":"<p>The game of pall mall played by Frederick V of the Palatinate and Frederick Henry, the Prince of Orange - drawing by Adiaen van de Venne.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Pall-mall\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/444\" hreflang=\"en\">St. James Park<\/a>","text":"<em>by Frank Wotton<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>In 1532 Henry VIII purchased a large area of land just west of Whitehall, intended as another deer park. The area of land ultimately became known as St. James Park, its name deriving from a leper hospital built in the 13th century named after St. James the Less. By the 18th century, when C\u00e9sar De Saussure roamed its grounds, St. James Park had become a bustling oasis amid the city, with crowds dense with people bumping shoulders (De Saussure, 1902, p. 48).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Situated tightly between Green Park and Whitehall, the park was bordered by \u201cavenues of elm and lime trees\u201d (De Saussure, 1902, p. 48). Pedestrians enjoyed walking and socializing alongside ponds filled with wild ducks and geese, and by friendly deer that even ate out of the palm of the hand (p. 49). St. James Park also featured a small lake that was created ca. 1826 from a canal that ran through the region. The lake had two islands, West Island and Duck Island, the latter named on account of the park\u2019s notable duck population.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Society lurked about the park continuously throughout the year, and especially during the warmer months (De Saussure, 1902, p. 49). In addition, and to their great benefit, citizens were also ensured the safety from being taken up for debt, insofar as they remained in the vicinity, and the area was also mostly free of crime (p. 49). St. James Park was safe, desirable, and \u201can enchanting spot\u201d for city dwellers (p. 48).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar. <em>A Foreign View of England in 1725-1729<\/em>. London John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1902<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/St_James%27_Park\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Wikipedia<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.royalparks.org.uk\/parks\/st-jamess-park\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Royal Parks<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.502088305526","lon":"-0.13251487353791"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/St_James%27s_Park_mall1745_0.jpg","caption":"<p>Fashionable people thronging St James's Park, ca. 1745.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/St_James%27s_Park#\/media\/File:St_James&#039;s_Park_mall1745.jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/445\" hreflang=\"en\">Westminster Abbey<\/a>","text":"<em>by Frank Wotton<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Westminster Abbey, alternatively dubbed the Abbey, was a church dedicated to St. Peter that lied just west of the Palace of Westminster. The church was a Benedictine Monastery until it dissolved in 1539, and was then a cathedral for approximately sixteen years. Since 1650 it has held the status of Church of England \u201cRoyal Peculiar.\u201d<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The main entrance was on the west and, following traditional gothic styles of architecture, the interior was magnificently ornamented, long, and narrow with \u201ca roof held up by rows of massive columns\u201d (De Saussure, 1902, p. 49). Within the beautiful interior, divine services filled with music were held in small spaces (p. 49). According to De Saussure, these spaces \u201care like the choir of the Cathedral of Lausanne\u201d (p. 49).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The Abbey was the traditional crowning and burial site for English, and later British, monarchs (De Saussure, 1902, p. 49). In the northern parts were the tombs of peers and noblemen, such as the Dukes of Newcastle, and in the southern parts were the tombs of poets and scholars, such as Shakespeare, Milton, and countless other celebrated individuals (pp. 49-50). Beyond this, there were a number of other chapels containing more tombs of ancient kings, queens, and peers of the kingdom (p. 50)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar. <em>A Foreign View of England in 1725-1729<\/em>. London John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1902.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Westminster_Abbey\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Wikipedia<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.4992921","lon":"-0.1273097"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Westminster_Abbey_c1711_0.jpg","caption":"<p>The Abbey ca. 1711 prior to the north towers being built.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Westminster_Abbey#\/media\/File:Westminster_Abbey_c1711.jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/459\" hreflang=\"en\">Parliament - Westminster Hall<\/a>","text":"<em>by Sequoia Ahren<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>The House of Parliament is located nearby Westminster Abbey. It was formally a Royal Palace until it was almost entirely destroyed by fire. After which only a large hall and a few rooms remained. The remaining hall is fairly large measuring 280 feet long and 50 feet wide. The hall is filled with booths occupied by merchants such as booksellers, silversmiths, printers, and picture-dealers. At the end of the hall there is are four judges. This is where civil lawsuits would be argued. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>Se Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). A <em>foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II.\u00a0<\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>\n\n<p>\u201cHistory of the Westminster Palace: Parliament House of England: Origins.\u201d <em>Victorian Era.<\/em><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.500164903048","lon":"-0.12524348284001"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/fig186.gif","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.british-history.ac.uk\/old-new-london\/vol3\/pp536-544\">British History Online<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/494\" hreflang=\"en\">Parliament - The House of Lords<\/a>","text":"<em>by Sequoia Ahren<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>The house of lords consists of a large chamber with an elevated platform and chair at the end of it. This is where the King would sit, in a large armchair, with the Prince of Wales on his left and the Duke of York, the King\u2019s brother on the other. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span>The rest of the chamber holds chairs and benches for many noblemen to occupy. There are six large sacks in the room each filled with wool. These are where the Chancellor, high judges, councilors of state, and masters of Chancery would sit. Wool was a heavily sought-after reminder. Sacks of wool are used to remind Parliament of the wealth that was brought to England from wool. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>Se Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). A\u00a0<em>foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II.\u00a0<\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.499499755957","lon":"-0.12484073638916"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/houseoflords.jpg","caption":"<p>The House of Lords<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.historytoday.com\/archive\/changing-house-lords\">History Today<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/495\" hreflang=\"en\">Parliament - House of Commons<\/a>","text":"<em>by Sequoia Ahren<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>The House of Commons is a large square hall with seating throughout. It is designed to hold as many members as possible with no hierarchy seating chart. There is then an elevated chair in the middle of the hall for the President of the Chamber. Around him sit the clerks and secretaries. Sitting above the ground is a gallery where noblemen can listen in on debates being had below. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span>De Saussure describes that formerly there were many rooms available for the King to rest. Before the royal palace was destroyed by\u00a0fire there were apartments for the King, the Prince of Wales, and other Peers of the king. This was a place for dressing and other leading up to ceremonies etc. \u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>Se Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). A <em>foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II.\u00a0<\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.499947242123","lon":"-0.12461543083191"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/39284.jpg","caption":"<p>House of Commons<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.ashrare.com\/parliament_prints.html\">Ash Rare Books<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/471\" hreflang=\"en\">The Gate of Westminster<\/a>","text":"<em>by Zoe Toulmin<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>The Gate of Westminster sits in front of the Banqueting Hall and is remarkable for its gothic architecture. It is sometimes confused with the Holbein Gate as they are in a close proximity.\u00a0Cesar de Saussure says in his letter that is was\u00a0\u201c\u00a0in this wide street that a scaffold was erected, adjoining the banqueting house, and the fortunate King Charles I., stepping through one of the windows, was led to the block, where he lost his head\u201d (66). He is most likely looking at the Holbein Gate when he refers to the Gate of Westminster.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\"><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>. London: J. Murray<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.50110368063","lon":"-0.12613376720462"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Gate_at_Whitehall_from_Vetusta_monumenta_%28Vol.1%2C_1826%29.jpg","caption":"<p>The Holbein Gate at Whitehall, from George Vertue's Vetusta Monumenta in 1747.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Holbein_Gate\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/448\" hreflang=\"en\">Whitehall<\/a>","text":"<em>by Emma Donohue<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>Whitehall \u201cused to be the usual residence of the kings of England,\u201d and was once the largest palace in Europe before that title was given to the Palace of Versailles (De Saussure, 1902, p. 64). After a devastating fire in 1698, only the Banqueting Hall and a few other rooms in the king\u2019s apartments remained intact (p. 65). Once the royal family stopped living in this palace, it was torn down and a complex of other palaces belonging to the Duke of Portland was built in its place (p. 65).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span>The Gate of Westminster is located outside the Banqueting Hall and there is a small square with a statue of King James II in the rear (De Saussure, 1902, p. 66). It is said that King Henry VIII married his second and third wives at the palace, as well as it being the location of the first known performance of Shakespeare\u2019s <em>The Tempest<\/em> (Wikipedia)<em>.<\/em> The name Whitehall comes from the white stones that were used in the creation of the buildings (Wikipedia). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, Cesar. 1902. A foreign view of England. London. John Murray. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Palace_of_Whitehall\">Wikipedia.<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.503470185691","lon":"-0.12494586902136"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/The%20Old%20Palace%20of%20Whitehall%20by%20Hendrick%20Danckerts%201675.jpg","caption":"<p>The Old Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts in 1675.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Palace_of_Whitehall#\/media\/File:The_Old_Palace_of_Whitehall_by_Hendrik_Danckerts.jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/468\" hreflang=\"en\">The Banqueting Hall<\/a>","text":"<em>by Zoe Toulmin<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>The Banqueting Hall has the same appearance as it did during De Saussure\u2019s visit. It is a large building containing magnificent architecture and beautiful paintings. It was built of freestone and had a double row of pillars and columns out front. De Saussure observed that its interior \u201cconsists of a single hall, the ceiling of which is painted in fresco by the famous Rubens\u201d (65).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>Even though its appearance stayed the same the purpose of the Hall changed over time. \u201cThis hall was built for the purpose of receiving ambassadors, or addresses, and for giving banquets,\u201d claimed De Saussure. \u201cToday a very different use is made of this hall, for it is used as a chapel\u201d (65).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\"><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>. London: J. Murray<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.504595495251","lon":"-0.12601017951965"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/220px-Banqueting_House_London.jpg","caption":"<p>Banqueting Hall of The Palace of Whitehall.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Banqueting_House,_Whitehall\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/477\" hreflang=\"en\">The Admiralty<\/a>","text":"<em>by Emma Donohue<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>The Admiralty was home to the government department in command of the Royal Navy of England. \u201cThe chief, or president, of the Admiralty resides here,\u201d noted De Saussure (1902, p. 66). The Board and other directors of the Navy were primarily noblemen who gather daily to work within the Admiralty. It is likely for there to be \u201cmany well-known sea-captains and men on business intent\u201d in the building as well (p. 66). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span>The Admiralty was the first purpose-build business building in Great Britain and was new construction at the time of De Saussure\u2019s walkthrough London in 1725 (Wikipedia). Those in charge of the Admiralty were not very limited by the law or Parliament and they mainly operated in accordance to the desires of the royals (Wikipedia). The Admiralty, multiple expansions later, is still the site of many military offices under the Ministry of Defense (Wikipedia).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, Cesar. 1902. A foreign view of England. London. John Murray. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Admiralty\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.506056241365","lon":"-0.12836942404685"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Admiralty_0.png","caption":"<p>The Department of Admiralty Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Admiralty#\/media\/File:Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom_(HM_Government).svg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/478\" hreflang=\"en\">Charing Cross<\/a>","text":"<em>by Emma Donohue<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span>Charing Cross was a triangular-shaped intersection connecting Whitehall and The Strand at the site of the Mews (De Saussure, 1902, p. 66). In the intersection, there was a large bronze statue of King Charles I on a horse. This statue was to memorialize the King who was executed just down the street at Whitehall. As De Saussure tells the story, the artist who created the statue was very proud of his work, until \u201che suddenly discovered that he had omitted the girths of the saddle, and his despair was such at knowing that there was no remedy for the defect that he went and hanged himself\u201d (p. 67)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span>During the English Civil War, many others were executed in the Charing Cross area and made into a spectacle for the people of London. The name Charing comes from the old English <em>cerring<\/em>, meaning a bend or turn, and referring to the River Thames that has a large bend near the location of Charing Cross (Wikipedia). It is still a major intersection in London today (Wikipedia). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, Cesar. 1902. A foreign view of England. London. John Murray. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Charing_Cross\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.507340146215","lon":"-0.12765169143677"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Charing%20Cross_0.jpg","caption":"<p>The Pillory at Charing Cross. The statue of Charles I, to the right, marks the site of the eponymous Cross.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Charing_Cross#\/media\/File:Pillory_Charing_Cross_edited.jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/452\" hreflang=\"en\">The Royal Mews<\/a>","text":"<em>by Olivia Colarusso<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The Royal Mews were formerly located at Charing Cross in the west end of The Strand during the 14th century where they housed the royal hawks. Trained hawks were kept in cages inside the Mews while they were moulting which is where the word mew (to moult) and where the name Royal Mews is derived from. However, the building at Charing Cross was burned down in a fire during the 1500s. It was rebuilt in 1732 under the designs of William Kent (Wikipedia).\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Today, the new Royal Mews are located in the area of Buckingham Palace and is home to the stables for the royal horses kept for the Royal Family of England. The current Mews were designed by John Nash and the building was completed in 1825, however much remodeling has been done to the structure since. The Royal Mews houses state coaches, carriages, about 30 horses, and state motor cars. Furthermore, coachmen, grooms, chauffeurs, and any people part of the Royal Mews staff reside in flats just above the carriage houses and stables. The vehicles kept here are used for many recreational, sporting, state, and personal purposes of the Royal Family, but The Royal Mews as a tourist site is open to the public for tours (Wikipedia).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Royal_Mews\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.508047985583","lon":"-0.12808084487915"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Royal_Stables_in_the_Mews%2C_Charing_Cross._Etching_by_Cook%2C_1793.jpg","caption":"<p>The Royal Mews at Charing Cross in 1793.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Royal_Mews\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/512\" hreflang=\"en\">The Somerset House<\/a>","text":"<em>by Shea Flannery<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>\u201cThe Somerset House, which was built in the time of Edward VI., in the low Italian fashion then in vogue.\u201d It\u2019s courtyard is surrounded by arcades. And at the back there is a big garden stretching down to the river.\u201d This courtyard was <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>300 ft (91 m) by 200 ft (61 m), flanked by a pair of terraces, the whole presenting a unified frontage to the river, 500 feet (150 m) wide. Around the courtyard, each block consisted of six storeys: cellar, basement, ground, principal, attic and garret.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span> During 1725, when Saussure was walking the streets of London, the Somerset House was occupied by the Queen Dowager, and its presented with a mounted guard before it, as before all the royal palaces. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The North Wing, fronting the Strand, <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>was the first part of the complex to be built. Construction of the riverside wing followed; it was finished in 1786. At the time of construction, the Thames was not embanked and the river lapped the South Wing, where a great arch allowed boats and barges to penetrate to landing places within the building. Meanwhile, work continued on the East and West Wings, <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>which began to be occupied from 1788; by 1790 the main quadrangle was complete<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>. The Somerset House was filled with sculptures and other visual embellishments.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><sup> <\/sup><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Inside, most of the offices were plain and business-like, but in the North Wing there were formal rooms and public spaces.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, Cesar (1902). <em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II. <\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.5115678","lon":"-0.1177122"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/The%20somerset%20house%20courtyard.jpg","caption":"<p>The Courtyard of Somerset House, from the North Wing Entrance<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Somerset_House\">Wikipedia\u00a0<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/499\" hreflang=\"en\">Inner Temple <\/a>","text":"<em>by Natalie Jelley <\/em>\n<p>Beyond the bar is what is\u00a0referred\u00a0to as the Temple or Inner Temple.\u00a0The Temple is an area or a series of buildings\u00a0the is used as a college for training the elite lawyers of London and is\u00a0\u201csurrounded by walls and fine gardens\u201d. However, before becoming a college, the area was used by the knights of templar.\u00a0The knights moved out of the space during the reign of King Henry II.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902).\u00a0A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II. London: J. Murray.\u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.5128957219","lon":"-0.10978817939758"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/inner%20temple%20_1.jpg","caption":"<p>Inside the Inner Temple.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.innertemple.org.uk\/who-we-are\/history\/the-inner-temple-history\/the-medieval-inn\/\">InnerTemple<\/a>\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/501\" hreflang=\"en\">Lincoln&#039;s Inn <\/a>","text":"<em>by Natalie Jelley <\/em>\n<p>Lincoln\u2019s in\u00a0is described as \u201ca spacious college composed of several\u00a0buildings\u201d.\u00a0Next to the college are the fields of Lincoln\u2019s Inn which is made up of\u00a0mansions belonging to Dukes of\u00a0Ancaster\u00a0and Newcastle. The Fields of Lincoln\u2019s Inn\u00a0are located past Covent garden. \u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902).\u00a0A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II. London: J. Murray.\u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.516235730986","lon":"-0.11654681038757"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/lincolns%20inn%20_0.jpg","caption":"<p>The building exterior and surrounding gardens\u00a0of Lincoln's Inn within modern day London.\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Lincoln%27s_Inn\">Wikipedia\u00a0<\/a>\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/500\" hreflang=\"en\">Gray&#039;s Inn<\/a>","text":"<em>by Natalie Jelley <\/em>\n<p>Grays Inn\u00a0is another one of the four colleges in London that serves to train lawyers.\u00a0The\u00a0purpose\u00a0of the Inns has remained the same for hundreds of years \u201cGray's Inn and the other three Inns of Court remain the only bodies legally allowed to\u00a0<a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Call_to_the_Bar\">call<\/a>\u00a0a\u00a0<a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Barrister\">barrister<\/a>\u00a0to the Bar\u201d (Wikipedia). The Inns had steadily grown in popularity since the reign of Elizabeth\u00a0I and James I, they lost momentum during the English civil war.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>\u201cGray's Inn.\u201d\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/\u201cGray&#039;s Inn.\u201d Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 6 Apr. 2020, en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Gray%27s_Inn.\">Wikipedia<\/a>\u00a0 \u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.520099302849","lon":"-0.11329613160342"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/grays_0.jpg","caption":"<p>Outside of the buildings of Gray's Inn.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"http:\/\/www.victorianweb.org\/art\/architecture\/legal\/5.html\">Victorianweb<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/498\" hreflang=\"en\">Temple Bar <\/a>","text":"<em>by Natalie Jelley <\/em>\n<p>Temple bar is the first gate to the city of London\u00a0and located on the western end, touching Westminster. Temple bar is described as\u00a0\u201cA large gate at the end of Strand street\u201d (De Saussure). The gate is made of stone and\u00a0includes four statues and niches, as it is bulky over the top.\u00a0The gate represents the special power of the cities political occupants and is closed whenever there is a\u00a0proclamation\u00a0or\u00a0the death of a king.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>The Editors of\u00a0Encyclopaedia\u00a0Britannica. \u201cThe Temple.\u201d\u00a0Encyclop\u00e6dia\u00a0Britannica,\u00a0Encyclop\u00e6dia\u00a0Britannica, Inc., 12 Mar. 2009\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902).\u00a0A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II. London: J. Murray.\u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.513550599794","lon":"-0.11240840889698"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/temple%20bar%20.jpg","caption":"<p>Temple bar gate stands today.\u00a0However\u00a0it has been moved\u00a0from\u00a0it\u2019s\u00a0original location between Strand and Fleet street.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Temple_Bar,_London\">Wikipedia\u00a0<\/a>\u00a0\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/513\" hreflang=\"en\">The Fleet River and Fleet Ditch<\/a>","text":"<em>by Shea Flannery<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Londoners used the Fleet River, located just west of the city wall, for exporting goods. Saussure describes the Fleet Ditch as \u201csort of a canal, where barges come up with the help of the tide.\u201d He explains that the houses on either side of this \u201ccanal\u201d possesses two singular privileges, \u201cone of them being that no one can be taken up for debt when in that part of London\u201d. The other one \u201cAllowing anyone to get married without any license or publication to confirm the marriage.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>\u201d<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span> The couples would most commonly get married in a tavern or \u201cpot house\u201d, the priest being paid with half a crown and a bottle of wine.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Leaving Fleet Ditch, walking towards the heart of the city, you arrive at Ludgate Hill. This is not a mile long street such as the Pall Mall or The Stretch, but \u201c a wide and handsome stretch\u201d. Saussure describes Ludgate Hill as \u201ca place entirely occupied by merchants\u2019 wares, silken tissues of beautiful and costly kinds being sold here.\u201d\u00a0 Ludgate Hill <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>is the site of St. Paul's Cathedral,<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span> traditionally said to have been the site of a Roman Temple<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span> of the goddess<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Diana_(mythology)\"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span> <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a>Diana<span><span><span><span><span><span><span>. It is one of the three ancient hills of London, the others being Tower Hill <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>and Cornhill<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>. The highest point is just north of St. Paul's, at 17.6 metres (58 ft) above sea level.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, Cesar (1902). <em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II.\u00a0 <\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.512707467755","lon":"-0.10412241239674"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Fleet%20river%20fleet%20ditch.jpg","caption":"<p><span>Entrance to the Fleet River as it emerges into the Thames, by <\/span><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Samuel_Scott_(painter)\">Samuel Scott<\/a><span>, c. 1750<\/span><\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/River_Fleet\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/514\" hreflang=\"en\">Ludgate<\/a>","text":"<em>by Shea Flannery<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>At the end of the street is the gate, named after King Lud, who Saussure claimed to \u201chave been the founder of London\u201d. Saussure described the gate as \u201cOrnamented on one side with statues of this legendary king and his two sons, and on the other side, facing St. Paul\u2019s, with a statue of Queen Elizabeth.\u201d On this gate you see the heads of persons who have been executed for high treason stuck on stakes. There is said to be the head of Oliver Cromwell on the Gate.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span>Rebuilt by the City in 1586, a statue of King Lud and his two sons was placed on the east side, and one of Queen Elizabeth I<\/span><span> on the west.<\/span><span> These statues are now outside the church of St Dunstan-in-the-West<\/span><span>, in Fleet Street. It was rebuilt again after being destroyed in the Great Fire.<\/span><span> Like most of the other City gates it was demolished in 1760. The prisoners were moved to a section of the workhouse in Bishopsgate<\/span><span> Street.<\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, Cesar (1902). <em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of Charles I and Charles II. <\/em>London: J. Murray.<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.514091172256","lon":"-0.10357581907702"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/LUD%20GATE%20BABY.png","caption":"<p><span>An old illustration of the gate circa 1650<\/span><\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Ludgate#\/media\/File:Ludgate_Hollar.PNG\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/456\" hreflang=\"en\">The City of London <\/a>","text":"<em>by Jenny L&#039;Hommedieu <\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>C\u00e9sar de Saussure explores London and takes his readers through an in-depth account of the many historical landmarks and their cultural significance within the City. He writes in his journal on September 17, 1725 about his time in the largest and most populous city in Europe, and how it hosts more than 1 million inhabitants (de Saussure 36). De Saussure writes that London is \u201c<span><span>is ten miles long<\/span><\/span>\u00a0from Millbank to <span><span>Blackwall<\/span><\/span><span><span>, <\/span><\/span><span><span>and its<\/span><\/span>\u00a0width is about three miles from Southwark <span><span>to <\/span><\/span>Moorfields\u201d (36). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure focuses on the streets first, noting how long, wide, and straight they are. The side of each street is paved with stones to allow pedestrians space to walk without fear of running into the coaches or horses (36). The City is enclosed with stone walls that only cover a 3-mile-wide circumference\u2014with merchants occupying the space inside the City and noblemen and members of the Court occupying Westminster. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Some streets, however, <\/span><\/span><span><span>De Saussure <\/span><\/span><span><span>describes as being \u201cdirty, narrow, and badly built\u201d (67). Nicer streets have houses on the side of them, with lanterns lighting placed in front of each house. The streets are also dirty and full of dust due to construction and continuous use of coaches in the street. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure <\/span><\/span><span><span>is impressed with the intricacies and fashioning of London homes. Built out of bricks and very thin, some of the nicer houses have cornices and borders they use to divide the floors. The newest houses of the time have a floor \u201cmade in the earth\u201d where the servants were housed (69). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The front of each house has a moat that separates the street from the front door. There is an iron railing that divides the street from the moat. Each of these houses also have a small garden or courtyard in the back (69).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>One peculiar thing about the houses in the City is that they are not owned individually. The ground upon which they are built for a set number of term years (70). The builder is sure to build a house that will last only for those number of term years\u2014when the term years are up so is the integrity of the house. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/sakai.stlawu.edu\/access\/content\/group\/FRPG-2087-01-SP20\/Assigned%20Readings\/De%20Saussure%2C%20Cesar%201902%20A%20Foreign%20View%20of%20England.pdf\">C\u00e9sar de Saussure.\u00a0<\/a><a href=\"https:\/\/sakai.stlawu.edu\/access\/content\/group\/FRPG-2087-01-SP20\/Assigned%20Readings\/De%20Saussure%2C%20Cesar%201902%20A%20Foreign%20View%20of%20England.pdf\"><em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II<\/em>. Trans. by Madame van Muyden London: J. Murray, 1902.<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.514149778259","lon":"-0.10374866844819"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Panorama_of_London_in_1543_Wyngaerde_Section_2_0.jpg","caption":"<p>A panoramic view of the City of London.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Nathaniel_Whittock\">The City of London<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/481\" hreflang=\"en\">St. Paul&#039;s Cathedral <\/a>","text":"<em>by Lexie Zeppos<\/em>\n<p>St Paul\u2019s Cathedral is located opposite or across from Ludgate. This cathedral took fifty years to build and was constructed from white stone imported from Portland. In the final construct the building was in the shape\u00a0of a\u00a0cross,\u00a0which was 700 ft long, 150 ft wide, and over 150 ft in height.\u00a0Because this building was so big,\u00a0there are many architectural aspects that needed to be added for the\u00a0strucural\u00a0stability\u00a0of the building; one being columns for support.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>The front of the cathedral is located at the western end and has an exquisite doorway.\u00a0 This doorway is very famous for possessing two porticoes, one upon the other. The columns that supported the porticoes held shrines of statues and a parapet. The parapet held special value due to it being believed to be \u201cthe bas-relief history of the conversion of St. Paul\u201d (Saussure, 75), and because of this it was placed at the highest point of the shrine.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>When De Saussure entered\u00a0St Paul\u2019s Cathedral,\u00a0he found\u00a0it is filled with magnificent and beautiful statues of saints and life-sized statues of apostles.\u00a0The walls\u00a0were\u00a0covered with paintings, and the rooms\u00a0were\u00a0filled with sculptures and wood and stone figures. The choir in the service is\u00a0supposedly\u00a0divine\u00a0and play in a closed off room, \u201cwhich is shut off by a beautiful screen of various kinds of marble, with a bronze door.\u201d (Saussue,\u00a077)\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>The inside of the Cathedral\u00a0was\u00a0sectioned off by different areas, one being the\u00a0clock\u00a0tower.\u00a0The\u00a0clock\u00a0tower is on the western side,\u00a0which is said to be \u201cthe most reliable\u201d in London.\u00a0\u00a0In the central part of the cathedral is where the\u00a0Round\u00a0Tower is located.\u00a0The\u00a0round\u00a0tower is 300 ft tall and 300ft wide.\u00a0\u00a0The most prominent part of the cathedral would be the\u00a0dome. The\u00a0dome is 70 ft high and covered in lead.\u00a0From the top of the Dome\u00a0the entire city of London can be viewed.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>The\u00a0dome is decorated with Godfrey Kneller\u2019s painting of the Twelve Apostles.\u00a0Saussure conducts an experiment while being in the dome by whispering to the wall for his friend on the other side to hear.\u00a0Saussure was shocked that\u00a0his friend,\u00a0\u201ccaught every word I spoke\u201d(Saussue\u00a077). Due to there not being many domes in London in this time period,\u00a0this discovery was\u00a0very fascinating.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>A\u00a0statue\u00a0dedicated\u00a0to Queen Anne is beautifully displayed in the courtyard of the cathedral.\u00a0The sculpture at the time had made Queen Anne out of white marble which was the easiest material to carve.\u00a0She is portrayed to her high status by being clothed in her royal robe,\u00a0sceptre\u00a0in her hand,\u00a0and has her crown on her head.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902).\u00a0A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II. London: J. Murray<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.513847179832","lon":"-0.098351240158081","zoom":"17"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Screen%20Shot%202020-04-30%20at%2010.16.27%20AM.png","caption":"<p>The North Prospect of St. Paul's Cathedral after the Great Fire of 1666.\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/ramblesofawriter.wordpress.com\/2013\/08\/30\/origins-of-words-and-phrases-7\/\">Rambles of a Writer<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/492\" hreflang=\"en\">The Church of St. Mary-le-Bow<\/a>","text":"<em>by Makayla Anson<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The church of St. Mary-le-Bow is on the fine street of Cheapside in the City of London, where the church was rebuilt by Christopher Wren in 1666 after the \u201cGreat Fire of 1666. According to De Saussure (78), the church is the finest in London and has the best ringing of the bells, according to a \u00a0tradition, a person with a cocky British accent called a Cockney had to be born by listening to the bells of St. Mary-le-Bow instead of the other churches in London (De Saussure, 78).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The Church of St. Mary-le-Bow before the fire of 1666, the bells were used to create a curfew in the City of London and seated the Anglican Court of Arches, because of this court the arches that was built in 1666 were called bows. The church also was used to mark a distance between London and Lewes, and the church has ties to the financial institutions by holding services for companies. (St Mary-le-bow, nd.)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Anonymous. (n.d.) <em>St Mary-le-Bow. <\/em>Retrieved from <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/St_Mary-le-Bow\">wikipedia<\/a>\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C. (1902). <em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I. &amp; George II: The Letters of Monsieur Cesar De Saussure to his family. <\/em>London: John Murray. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.513763719405","lon":"-0.093652009963989"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/220px-St_Mary-Le-Bow_01.jpg","caption":"<p>The outside of the church of St. Mary-le-Bow.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/St_Mary-le-Bow\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/464\" hreflang=\"en\">Guildhall<\/a>","text":"<em>by Makayla Anson<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Guildhall can be found on Basinghall Street, which is near of Cheapside. The building was used as a town hall for the City of London. The hall can be referred to the building itself or the main room, which is a huge room used for banquets of Lord Mayor\u2019s. These banquets are to welcome the new Lord Mayor. (De Saussore,78)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The building was built in antique fashion, by having life-size portraits of William III, Mary, Lords, and judges of the kingdom. Other than being used as a town hall or for banquets, the hall was also where people like Anne Askew, Thomas Cranmer, Lady Jane Grey, Henry Garnet, and the Zong case were put on trial. After the fire of 1666, the hall was not fully restored when rebuilt in 1670, but had additions added until 1866. (\u201cGuildhall, London\u201d, n.d.)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Anonymous Author. (n.d.) <em>Guildhall, London<\/em>. Retrieved from <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Guildhall,_London\">wikipedia<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C. (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/em><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span>. London: J.\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Murray.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.515832094006","lon":"-0.091958503149647"},"media":{"url":"https:\/\/www.earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Guildhall%2C_London_0.JPG","caption":"<p>The outside of Guildhall's main\u00a0entrance<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Guildhall,_London\">Wikipedia\u00a0<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/473\" hreflang=\"en\">The Royal Exchange<\/a>","text":"<em>by Abbey Manns<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span>The Royal Exchange is a spacious building that is built in a modern style with Portland stone. The front of the Royal Exchange looks towards Cornhill. There is also a tower above that chimes with different tunes. The inside has a large court with two small gates and two large gates that lead into the court. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span>The sides of the court are supported by columns and there is a statue of Charles II in the center. On the floor above, statues of all the kings of England are placed. Merchants discuss business from one to two o'clock in the court. There are also stairs on each side of the Royal Exchange that lead up to the first floor where there are four galleries covered with merchandise. The stalls and vaults bring in a lot of money. The vaults are located beneath the building where the merchandise is stored. The Royal Exchange has been burnt down and rebuilt twice. The present building was built in the 1840s.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/em>.\u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span>\u00a0 \u00a0\u00a0 London: J. Murray.<\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span>Wikimedia Foundation. (2020, April 21). Royal Exchange, London. Retrieved from <\/span><\/span><span><span><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Royal_Exchange,_London\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.513623505544","lon":"-0.087257623672485"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/The%20Royal%20Exchange_0.jpg","caption":"<p>The Royal Exhange before it was burnt down, engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Royal_Exchange,_London#\/media\/File:Wenceslas_Hollar_-_Royal_Exchange_(State_2).jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/475\" hreflang=\"en\">The Monument<\/a>","text":"<em>by Abbey Manns<\/em>\n<p>The Monument is described as a pyramid or a column that was \"raised by order of Parliament\".\u00a0 It is located in the same spot where the 1666 fire broke out. During this fire, about two-thirds of the City was destroyed.<\/p>\n\n<p>The Monument is designed 200 feet high and is designed in a Doric style. Inside, there is a winding staircase made of black marble. Up the staircase, you will reach the gallery or a square balcony. In the center, there is a vase which is about forty feet high. In this vase, there are <span>artichokes with leaves of gilt copper. In order to climb higher, you have to climb up an iron ladder.<\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span>On one side of the pedestal is a bas-relief that represents the Fire of London and on the other three sides there are inscriptions. Two inscriptions are in Latin and one is in English. One of the Latin inscriptions is about the history of the fire, the other is about what has to be done in order to rebuild the city. The inscription in English is accusing the Roman Catholics of the fire.<\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/em><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span>. London: J. Murray.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p>Monument to the Great Fire of London. (2020, April 12). Retrieved from <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Monument_to_the_Great_Fire_of_London\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.510144728232","lon":"-0.085948705673218"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/monument.JPG","caption":"<p>The Monument, by Sir Christopher Wren.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Monument_to_the_Great_Fire_of_London#\/media\/File:The_Monument_to_the_Great_Fire_of_London.JPG\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/493\" hreflang=\"en\">Old London Bridge<\/a>","text":"<em>by Makayla Anson<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>The Thames bridge also known as the London bridge was built in different materials but in 1725, the bridge was made of medieval stone arches. The original wooden bridge was built in 50 AD. The remodel of the bridge was started because Henry the II wanted to remake the bridge with a chapel at the center to remember his friend Thomas Becket after he was murdered. (\u201cLondon Bridge,\u201d n.d.)<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>At the time of 1725, the bridge was only open for pedestrians to cross the Thames River to get to Southwark from the City of London, which at the time was the only way to cross. The bridge has houses on either to make it look like more of a street. In the center of the bridge, there is a space for you can see the ships go through. On the London side there is a water pump to send water throughout the town (De Saussure, 83).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Anonymous. (n.d.) <em>London Bridge.<\/em> Retrieved from <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/London_Bridge\">wikipedia<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C. (1902). <em>A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I. &amp; George II: The Letters of Monsieur Cesar De Saussure to his family. <\/em>London: John Murray. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.507887721028","lon":"-0.087804794311523"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Old%20London%20Bridge.jpg","caption":"<p>The Old London Bridge in 1500 showing the houses on the bridge.\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Old-London-Bridge\">Britannica\u00a0<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/465\" hreflang=\"en\">The River Thames<\/a>","text":"<em>by Arashi Bamberg<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span>The Thames is a salient feature of London and De Saussure didn\u2019t hesitate to give praise to this river he described as \u201ctoo beautiful not to be worth a description\u201d (De Saussure 93). It opens in the county of Oxford, stretches across the city of London, and has an average width similar to the length of the London Bridge. There are regularly about 15,000 boats travelling across the Thames for the\u00a0purpose of transporting both people and merchandise. The part of the river below the London Bridge is always almost completely covered by merchant boats from practically every country. There are French vessels, Dutch vessels, and domestic vessels that transport coal from Newcastle arranged in a rather charming fashion, and rising tides \u201cbrings vessels containing immense riches from every quarter of the globe\u201d (De Saussure 96).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar \u201cLetter III.\u201d A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of Geroge I and George II, translated or edited by Madame van Muyden, 2019, pgs. 83 and 93-96 <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.507734010222","lon":"-0.08623118804733"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/view-of-the-river-thames-with-st-pauls-and-old-london-bridge--william-james_2.jpg","caption":"<p>View of the River Thames with St. Paul's and Old London Bridge by\u00a0William\u00a0James (1730-80).<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/images.fineartamerica.com\/images\/artworkimages\/mediumlarge\/1\/view-of-the-river-thames-with-st-pauls-and-old-london-bridge--william-james.jpg\">fineartamerica<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/490\" hreflang=\"en\">Custom House<\/a>","text":"<em>by Arashi Bamberg<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span>There is a particularly important building located near the Thames called the Custom House, and it is where merchants pay their duties for their goods and declare what merchandise they\u2019d like to sell in England (De Saussure 84). It\u2019s usually so crowded with merchants and captains of vessels that making your way in the building is typically an arduous task. Custom-house officers are tasked with vetting merchandise and are known for being skilled at what they do. De Saussure described the Custom-house officers to be \u201cextraordinarily clever at discovering anything contraband\u201d (De Saussure 84), and he said that he\u2019s heard from somewhere that no other country has a similarly elaborate custom of vetting goods.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar \u201cLetter III.\u201d A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of Geroge I and George II, translated or edited by Madame van Muyden, 2019, p. 83\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.508746302158","lon":"-0.081688435445901"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-05\/Microcosm_of_London_Plate_028_-_Custom_House_%28colour%29.jpg","caption":"<p>A painting of The Custom House, 1808<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/thumb\/7\/73\/Microcosm_of_London_Plate_028_-_Custom_House_%28colour%29.jpg\/1185px-Microcosm_of_London_Plate_028_-_Custom_House_%28colour%29.jpg\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/461\" hreflang=\"en\">The Tower of London <\/a>","text":"<em>by Sarah Hentschke <\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><span>The Tower, the \u201ccitadel of London,\u201d is an 11th century fortress\u00a0located on the north end of the <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tower_of_London\">Thames River<\/a>. Built by William the Conqueror in the 1070s, this castle has remained an integral part of the lives of both the royalty and public in <a href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Tower-of-London\">London<\/a>. Cesar de Saussure's journey across London in 1726 includes several pages of remarks about this historic castle. Saussure describes the fortress, a mile in circumference surrounded by a moat and guarded by towers and bastions that look out across the Thames River. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><span>De Saussure enters the Tower from the Customs House and first visits the King\u2019s collection of wild animals. The menagerie is described as a small and dirty place with ten lions, four leopards, a panther, and two tigers (De Saussure 85). Following the visit to the King\u2019s menagerie, Cesar passes the drawbridge and encounters the <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tower_of_London\">Yeomen Warders<\/a>, guards of the Tower since Tudor times. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><span>The Tower contains several rooms dedicated to the military. In the upper arsenals, there is a long and wide hall where weapons in sufficient quantity to arm fifty thousand men were kept \"in readiness and in the greatest order and cleanliness\"\u00a0(De Saussure 87). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><span>The Tower has several other purposes including: holding the archives of the <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tower_of_London\">Crown<\/a>, ancient laws of the kingdom, the Royal charters, and with several other historic documents. In the late 1200s, the Tower assumed another role as a mint and at the time Saussure visited, it was the only location\u00a0functioning\u00a0as a mint\u00a0(De Saussure 91). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><span>Famous <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tower_of_London\">prisoners<\/a>\u00a0dating back to the 12th century were held in the Tower; including Anne Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII,\u00a0imprisoned and beheaded in 1536. The sheer size of this fortress is difficult to imagine when not in its vicinity but Saussure goes further to describe his visit, \u201cOne may say that the Tower is a small town; in its enclosure are several private abodes, a church, and a court of justice\u201d (Sasussure 91). While the uses of this tower have adapted over time it still remains a vital symbol for the English of their past heritage, somewhat tumultuous, but rich in history and tradition. <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span><em>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/em><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><span><span><span><span>. London: J. Murray.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Tower-of-London\">Encyclopedia Britannica\u00a0<\/a><\/p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Tower_of_London\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.5081124","lon":"-0.0759493"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Tower_of_London%2C_south%2C_Buck_brothers.jpg","caption":"<p>Engraving of the South Side of the Tower of London by Samuel and Nathan Buck, 1737.\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/research.britishmuseum.org\/research\/collection_online\/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3197218&amp;partId=1\">The British Museum\u00a0<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/470\" hreflang=\"en\">Aldersgate<\/a>","text":"<em>by Zoe Toulmin<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>Aldersgate is a suburb in the city, it is named after a gate in the ancient London wall that surrounds the city and also gave it's name to a street called Aldersgate street.\u00a0It is located near the\u00a0Museum of London.<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\"><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>. London: J. Murray<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Aldersgate\">Wikipedia<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.513534420585","lon":"-0.076828092445014"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/fullsizeoutput_16db.jpeg","caption":"<p>A photo of Aldersgate from 1650.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Aldersgate\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/458\" hreflang=\"en\">Bedlam<\/a>","text":"<em>by Mckenzie Haberl <\/em>\n<p>Bedlam was the first mental hospital in England, it was called Bethlem Royal Hospital. The mental hospital was founded in 1247 by Simon Fitzmay who used to be a sheriff in London. Bedlam used to have all kinds of patients but then in 1547 Henery VIII declared it a hospital for all mentally ill patients. Bedlam was known for how crazy they treated their patients and was soon shut down. The insane hospital came to an end in 1770.\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Bedlam\">https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Bedlam<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.517218874148","lon":"-0.086724256024977"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-05\/unnamed.jpg","caption":"<p>This is an inside look of what the Bedlam hospital would be like inside.\u00a0<\/p>\n\n<p>\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"http:\/\/integral-options.blogspot.com\/2011\/12\/bedlam-history-of-bethlem-hospital.html\">http:\/\/integral-options.blogspot.com\/2011\/12\/bedlam-history-of-bethlem-\u2026<\/a>\u00a0"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/489\" hreflang=\"en\">Moorfields <\/a>","text":"<em>by Mckenzie Haberl <\/em>\n<p>Moorfields is an open space in the center of London. Moorfields had pretty green grass that went from the wall all the way to the countryside. The wall was the London wall which was used as a defense method built by the Romans. There was a Western and Eastern growth\u00a0of London and Moorfields separated the two. The fields of Moorfeild were separated into four different areas. There were little Moorfield and Moorfield proper these were located North of Londons wall, Bedlam insane asylum was located here. Little Moorfield was near Moorgate street and was inside the Coleman Street Ward.\u00a0<\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Moorfields\">https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Moorfields<\/a><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.51781913665","lon":"-0.086213336229126"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/Unknown-2.jpeg","caption":"<p>Map of Moorfields\u00a0<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Moorfields\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}},{"text":{"headline":"<a href=\"\/node\/469\" hreflang=\"en\">Smithfield - St. Bartholomew&#039;s Day Fair<\/a>","text":"<em>by Zoe Toulmin<\/em>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>Smithfield is a suburb in the city, known for its hospital of St. Bartholomew. During three days of the week, it is filled with many different animals for sale. \u201cThese markets are almost fairs; but there is one more important fair held on St. Bartholomew\u2019s Day, of a fortnights duration, the palace being filled with wooden booths\u2026 together with comedians and rope-dancers, performing\u201d (91). <\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>St. Bartholomew\u2019s day was a very enjoyable experience although it did have its downsides. De Saussure attended the fair and assured his reader \u201cthat both times I visited this fair I experienced little of the latter, for the noise and uproar is so continuous and overwhelming, besides which you run a perpetual risk of being crushed to death, and also of being robbed\u201d (92).<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>\n<div><strong>Bibliography <\/strong><\/div>\n<p><span><span><span><span lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\" lang=\"FR\"><span><span>De Saussure, C\u00e9sar (1902). <\/span><\/span><\/span><em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>A foreign view of England in the reigns of George I and George II<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/em><span lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\" lang=\"EN\"><span><span>. London: J. Murray<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>"},"location":{"line":"true","lat":"51.51843153217","lon":"-0.10108868917888"},"media":{"url":"http:\/\/earlymodernlondon.org\/sites\/default\/files\/media\/image\/2020-04\/220px-Microcosm_of_London_Plate_008_-_Bartholomew_Fair_%28colour%29.jpg","caption":"<p>Illustration of St.\u00a0Bartholomew\u00a0Fair in 1808.<\/p>","credit":"<em>Media Credit: <\/em> <a href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Bartholomew_Fair\">Wikipedia<\/a>"}}]}}